In addition to successful, highly specialized subject–based research, more and more research formats are now transcending the boundaries of science and scholarship: civilians, policy–makers, members of industry, or administration are now taking part, even in research itself. These types of research can be seen as „problem–oriented science and scholarship.” There are several names for this type of cooperation: co–creation, co–innovation, or transdisciplinary research. And there are many formats such a real–world laboratories, living labs, citizen science, open science labs, hack–a–thons, or make–a–thons.
The idea: the people using this knowledge or directly affected by it should not have to wait until the research process is completed to learn the results. On the contrary: very different types of knowledge (academic, experiential, professional) are explicitly welcome, from the development of a research idea, through critical discussion of intermediate findings to the development of prototypes, business ideas, or policy proposals; heterogeneous values and ways of perceiving problems should also be taken into consideration.